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State mana


State mana (hoki i huaina ai te iwi whānui te mana me te kāwanatanga te mana), ko te mana o te ahumahi, rawa, enterprise ranei i te āhua ranei te iwi whānui tinana e tohu ana i te hapori rite te ātete ki te takitahi ranei rōpū tūmataitiPublic mana āta pā ana ki te ahumahi hoko taonga me ngā ratonga ki te kiritaki, me te rerekē i te iwi whānui, me te taonga kāwanatanga i ngā ratonga pütea i roto i te kāwanatanga whānui o te pūtea.

Public mana e taea te tango i te wahi i te motu, ā-rohe, ā-rohe, ranei terenga ngā taumata o te kāwanatanga me te taea te kōrero ki te kore-te käwanatanga tūmatanui tukuna te mana motuhake i roto i te hinonga tūmatanui.

Tūmatanui, i te mana, ko tetahi o te toru puka nui o te mana rawa, rerekëtanga i tūmataiti, ngā paheko, me te noa, te mana.

I roto i te mākete, ā-ōhanga, state-owned rawa, e pinepine te whakahaere me te whakahaeretia rite joint-stock corporations ki te kāwanatanga te whai i te katoa, i tētahi whakahaere tĭtĭ o te hea i te kamupene o. Tenei ahua kei te maha kīia te ki pera me te state-owned enterprise. Te state-owned enterprise ai āna mahi rite ki te not-for-profit corporation, rite te mea e kore ai e hiahiatia ana ki te whakaputa te pai kia rite ki te hinonga arumoni i roto i te whakataetae rāngai ranei rite te taiao heretaunga. Kāwanatanga kia hoki te whakamahi i te pai hinonga ake ratou ki te tautoko i te whānui pūtea.

Te hanganga o te state-owned enterprise i te tahi atu momo o te iwi whānui taonga i huaina corporatization. Te āhua puritia te heriheri i runga i te whenua, me te natural rauemi, me te hinonga whakahaeretia i raro i te ture anga o te nominally te whakamahere ōhanga, me te kupu e ai ki ngā paearu atu i te hinonga i roto i te mākete, me te i konatunatua ōhanga.

Kōawa tukanga o te whakawhiti tūmataiti ranei terenga rawa ki te pokapū kāwanatanga kāwanatanga ranei hinonga. Municipalization ko te tukanga o te whakawhiti tūmataiti ranei kī rawa ki te terenga kāwanatanga. Te state-owned enterprise ko te hinonga arumoni fatuhia e te kāwanatanga ki te hinonga i roto i te capitalist i te mākete i konatunatua ōhanga. Ngā take mō te kāwanatanga te mana o te hinonga arumoni e e te hinonga i roto i te pātai ko te taiao heretaunga ranei, no te mea ko te kāwanatanga whakatairanga i te whanaketanga ōhanga me te ahumahi. State-owned enterprises kia kore ai ranei e tika ana kia koe ki te mahi i roto i te whānui arumoni tikanga, a kia kore ai ranei kua whakahaere motuhake i roto i to ratou wāhi o te mahi. I te huringa o hinonga tūmatanui, me te tari kāwanatanga ki te kāwanatanga-fatuhia corporations te tahi mau taime i te kawainga ki te hokotanga. State capitalist öhanga e capitalist mākete ōhanga e whai nui nga nekehanga o te kāwanatanga-fatuhia pakihi. Tūmatanui i te mana o te tikanga o te hanga ko te huinga o te pāpori ki te mana, e ko te tautuhi i ngā āhuatanga o te pāpori-ōhanga. Heoi, i te kāwanatanga te mana me te kōawa e ratou e kore e pāpori, rite ratou e taea te tīariari i raro i te whānuitanga o ngā tōrangapū me te ōhanga i ngā pūnaha no te he momo o rerekē take. State mana i roto ano ia e kore e fakahu'unga te mana pāpori i te wahi i te moni tika no ki te hapori me te he katoa. Ka rite ki taua, te kāwanatanga te mana, ko te kotahi anake te taea faaiteraa o te iwi whānui ki te mana, e ia ano ko te kotahi te rerekētanga o te ariā whānui o te mana pāpori. I roto i te horopaki o te hapori, iwi whānui te mana fakahu'unga e te toenga hua i hanga e nuitia puritia rawa roaa ïa te reira ki te katoa o te hapori i roto i te puka o te pāpori wehe, rite te ātete ki te motuhake o te piha haapiiraa o te tūmataiti whakapaipai rangatira. I reira ko te momo whānui o te whakahaere i ngā puka mō te āhua-te rere i te ahumahi, e kopikopiko ana i motuhake technocratic te whakahaere ki te whakatikatika i ngā kaimahi' self-management. I roto i te tuku iho conceptions of non-mākete hapori, iwi whānui te mana kei te taputapu ki te whakaū i te tikanga o te hanga rite ki te kawainga ki te whakatūnga o te ōhanga whakamahere mo te tohatoha o ngā rauemi i waenganui i te rōpū, rite e hiahiatia ana mā te kāwanatanga, mā te kāwanatanga. Kāwanatanga te mana, ko te kia rite ki te ahua o te mana pāpori mō te mahi āwangawanga, ki te āhua te kite i rite te kitea te kaitono mō te whai me te whakahaere i nga tikanga o te production. Kaiwhakahau te amo i taua i te āhua, ka rite ki te māngai o te iwi whānui i te moni, e te whakahaere i te rauemi, me te hanga mo te painga o te iwi whānui. Rite ki te ahua o te mana, te kāwanatanga te mana kia whakatauritea ki ētahi me te noa, te mana. Pāpori ariā, me te tōrangapū, whakapono tōrangapū e manakohia kāwanatanga te mana o te tikanga o te hanga kia tapanga state hapori. State mana i mohio e Friedrich Engels i roto i te Hapori: Utopian, me te Pūtaiao rite, e ia ano, e kore e mahi i atu ki te moni, tae atu i te tukanga o te whakapaipai haaputuputuraa, me te hanganga o te utu mahi. Engels tohe e te kāwanatanga te mana o te ahumahi arumoni e tohu i te wāhanga whakamutunga o te moni, arā, o te mana me te whakahaere o te tauine nui-hanga, me te hanga i te kāwanatanga. I roto i te UK, tūmatanui, i te mana, ko te nuinga e pā ana ki te Labor Party (te Pokapū-maui manapori pāpori party) tüturu, e tika ana ki te hanganga o te Rarangi IV o te Labor Party Oatitanga i roto i te tau. Rarangi IV i tuhituhia e Fabian Society, he mema, Sidney Webb A, no te te mana o te rauemi, ko te tukuna i roto i te āhua, ranei tetahi manga o te kāwanatanga, pērā i te kaunihera ā-rohe, te whakamahi takitahi 'mana' e hāngai ana i runga i te āhua o te whakahaere kaupapa here, ahakoa i enei tika e kore e tika rawa te hunga e kore e transmissible. Hei tauira, ki te whānau kei te tohaina i te fare, e ko te state owned i te reira ano, kua homai tētahi rētihanga o te fare, e kia roaraa ranei inheritable, engari i te whakahaere, me te whakahaere i te mana e puritia ana e ngā tari kāwanatanga. He hōnore nui ki te kia hanga i waenganui i te kāwanatanga te mana me te iwi whānui rawa Ko te mua kia kōrero ki ngā rawa e whakahaerea ana e te motuhake āhua institution ranei peka o te kāwanatanga, whakamahia anake e e manga, pērā i te rangahau taiwhanga. Ko te whakamutunga e pā ana ki te rawa me ngā rauemi e wātea ana ki te katoa te iwi whānui mō te whakamahi, pērā i te park tūmatanui (te kite i te wāhi tūmatanui). I roto i te Neoclassical ōhanga, te ariā, te hiahia o te kāwanatanga te mana kua ako mā te whakamahi i te kirimana ariā. E ai ki te taonga tika huarahi e hāngai ana i runga i i oti te kirimana (whakawhanakehia e Oliver Hart, me tona co-kaituhi), te mana take no te mea te reira te whakatau i te mea e tupu i roto i te contingencies e kore i te whakaaro anö, i roto i te kirimana. I te mahi mā te Hata, Shleifer me te Vishnu, ko te ārahi i te tono o te taonga mana huarahi ki te pātai ahakoa te kī te mana ranei i te mana tūmataiti he e minaminatia. I roto i to ratou tauira, te kāwanatanga, me te maro tūmataiti e taea e te haumi ki te whakapai ake i te kounga o te iwi whānui me te pai, ki te whakaiti i ona utu production.

Huri i te reira i roto i taua i te mana tūmataiti hua i roto i te kaha manawarū ki te whakaiti i ngā utu, engari i reira kia hoki arahi ki te kounga rawakore.

No reira, tei runga i te wātea haumi hangarau, i reira e ngā āhuatanga i roto i i te kāwanatanga te mana, ko te pai. Te Hart-Shleifer-Vishnu ariā kua roa i roto i te maha ngā tohutohu No te tauira, ētahi kaituhi kua whakaaro ano hoki i konatunatua momo o te mana tūmataiti, me te āhua mana. Ano, i te Hart-Shleifer-Vishnu tauira riro e te rōpū tūmataiti ahu no whaipainga i te whakaratonga o te iwi whānui ki te pai. Bisley, me te Ghatam kua whakaaturia e ki te rōpū tūmataiti (te kore-te käwanatanga whakahaere) whakaaro e pā ana ki te iwi whānui pai, ka te rōpū ki te nui te wāriu o te iwi whānui i te pai i nga wa katoa kia te rangatira, ahakoa o te rōpū' haumi hangarau. Ano, ake tata i te tahi kaituhi kua whakaaturia e te haumi hangarau hoki te take i roto i te anga ki te haumi i te rōpū, ko te mahuinga ranei ki reira e te bargaining frictions i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me te rōpū tūmataiti.